Radiation is energy in the process of being transmitted.
It may take such forms as light, or tiny particles much too small to see.
Proliferation has been opposed by many nations with and without nuclear weapons, the governments of which fear that more countries with nuclear weapons may increase the possibility of nuclear warfare (up to and including the so-called "countervalue" targeting of civilians with nuclear weapons), de-stabilize international or regional relations, or infringe upon the national sovereignty of states.
Four countries besides the five recognized Nuclear Weapons States have acquired, or are presumed to have acquired, nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel.
Nuclear weapons have been used twice in war, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II. These bombings resulted in the deaths of approximately 200,000 civilians and military personnel from injuries sustained from the explosions.
The ethics of these bombings and their role in Japan's surrender are subjects of debate.
None of these four is a party to the NPT, although North Korea acceded to the NPT in 1985, then withdrew in 2003 and conducted announced nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, 20.
X-rays from a high-voltage discharge were discovered in 1895, and radioactivity from the decay of particular isotopes was discovered in 1896.Nuclear power is planned in over 20 countries which do not currently have it, and under some level of consideration in over 20 more (in a few, consideration is not necessarily at government level).In the following list, links are provided for those countries that are covered by specific country papers where the nuclear power prospects are more fully dealt with: Despite the large number of these emerging countries, they are not expected to contribute very much to the expansion of nuclear capacity in the foreseeable future – the main growth will come in countries where the technology is already well established.Visible light, the ultra-violet light we receive from the sun, and transmission signals for TV and radio communications are all forms of radiation that are common in our daily lives.These are all generally referred to as 'non-ionizing' radiation, though at least some ultra-violet radiation is considered to be ionizing.
Neutrons were identified in 1932, and in 1939 atomic fission was discovered by irradiating uranium with neutrons.